Mitra heads the Liberty Institute, a public policy research and educational organization headquartered in New Delhi, India. His work focuses on the role of individual rights, the rule of law, limited government, and free markets in responding to social, economic, and environmental concerns. Mitra has written extensively on issues of environment, trade, and technology. His work has appeared in a wide array of books, magazines, and newspapers, including the New York Times. As an editor, his work includes Population: The Ultimate Resource, which received the Sir Anthony Fisher Memorial International Prize in 2001 for best book from a new think tank. Mitra holds degrees in electrical engineering and marine engineering.